GAMABALI | Tradisi Bali dan Budaya Bali
Srimad-Bhagavatam 6.2 Ajamila diantar oleh Vi??ud?ta
In this chapter the messengers from Vaiku??ha explain to the Yamad?tas the glories of chanting the holy name of the Lord. The Vi??ud?tas said, “Now impious acts are being performed even in an assembly of devotees, for a person who is not punishable is going to be punished in the assembly of Yamar?ja. The mass of people are helpless and must depend upon the government for their safety and security, but if the government takes advantage of this to harm the citizens, where will they go? We see perfectly that Aj?mila should not be punished, although you are attempting to take him to Yamar?ja for punishment.”
It was due to Aj?mila’s glorifying the holy name of the Supreme Lord that he was not punishable. The Vi??ud?tas explained this as follows: “Simply by once chanting the holy name of N?r?ya?a, this br?hma?a has become free from the reactions of sinful life. Indeed, he has been freed not only from the sins of this life, but from the sins of many, many thousands of other lives. He has already undergone true atonement for all his sinful actions. If one atones according to the directions of the ??stras, one does not actually become free from sinful reactions, but if one chants the holy name of the Lord, even a glimpse of such chanting can immediately free one from all sins. Chanting the glories of the Lord’s holy name awakens all good fortune. Therefore there is no doubt that Aj?mila, being completely free from all sinful reactions, should not be punished by Yamar?ja.”
As they were saying this, the Vi??ud?tas released Aj?mila from the ropes of the Yamad?tas and left for their own abode. The br?hma?a Aj?mila, however, offered his respectful obeisances to the Vi??ud?tas. He could understand how fortunate he was to have chanted the holy name of N?r?ya?a at the end of his life. Indeed, he could realize the full significance of this good fortune. Having thoroughly understood the discussion between the Yamad?tas and the Vi??ud?tas, he became a pure devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He lamented very much for how very sinful he had been, and he condemned himself again and again.
Finally, because of his association with the Vi??ud?tas, Aj?mila, his original consciousness aroused, gave up everything and went to Hardwar, where he engaged in devotional service without deviation, always thinking of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thus the Vi??ud?tas went there, seated him on a golden throne and took him away to Vaiku??haloka.
In summary, although the sinful Aj?mila meant to call his son, the holy name of Lord N?r?ya?a, even though chanted in the preliminary stage, n?m?bh?sa, was able to give him liberation. Therefore one who chants the holy name of the Lord with faith and devotion is certainly exalted. He is protected even in his material, conditional life.
eva? te bhagavad-d?t?
upadh?ry?tha t?n r?jan
?r?-b?dar?ya?i? uv?ca—?ukadeva Gosv?m?, the son of Vy?sadeva, said; evam—thus; te—they; bhagavat-d?t??—the servants of Lord Vi??u; yamad?ta—by the servants of Yamar?ja; abhibh??itam—what was spoken; upadh?rya—hearing; atha—then; t?n—unto them; r?jan—O King; praty?hu?—replied properly; naya-kovid??—being conversant in good arguments or good logic.
?ukadeva Gosv?m? said: My dear King, the servants of Lord Vi??u are always very expert in logic and arguments. After hearing the statements of the Yamad?tas, they replied as follows.
aho ka??a? dharma-d???m
adharma? sp??ate sabh?m
da??o yair dhriyate v?th?
?r?-vi??ud?t?? ?cu?—the Vi??ud?tas said; aho—alas; ka??am—how painful it is; dharma-d???m—of persons interested in maintaining religion; adharma?—irreligion; sp??ate—is affecting; sabh?m—the assembly; yatra—wherein; ada??ye?u—upon persons not to be punished; ap?pe?u—who are sinless; da??a?—punishment; yai?—by whom; dhriyate—is being allotted; v?th?—unnecessarily.
The Vi??ud?tas said: Alas, how painful it is that irreligion is being introduced into an assembly where religion should be maintained. Indeed, those in charge of maintaining the religious principles are needlessly punishing a sinless, unpunishable person.
The Vi??ud?tas accused the Yamad?tas of violating the religious principles by attempting to drag Aj?mila to Yamar?ja for punishment. Yamar?ja is the officer appointed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead to judge religious and irreligious principles and to punish people who are irreligious. However, if completely sinless people are punished, the entire assembly of Yamar?ja is contaminated. This principle applies not only in the assembly of Yamar?ja, but throughout human society also.
In human society, properly maintaining religious principles is the duty of the king’s court or the government. Unfortunately, in this yuga, Kali-yuga, the religious principles are tampered with, and the government cannot properly judge who is to be punished and who is not. It is said that in the Kali-yuga if one cannot spend money in court, one cannot get justice. Indeed, in courts of justice it is often found that magistrates are bribed for favorable judgments. Sometimes religious men who preach the K???a consciousness movement for the benefit of the entire populace are arrested and harassed by the police and courts. The Vi??ud?tas, who are Vai??avas, lamented for these very regrettable facts. Because of their spiritual compassion for all the fallen souls, Vai??avas go out to preach according to the standard method of all religious principles, but unfortunately, because of the influence of Kali-yuga, Vai??avas who have dedicated their lives to preaching the glories of the Lord are sometimes harassed and punished by courts on false charges of disturbing the peace.
praj?n?? pitaro ye ca
??st?ra? s?dhava? sam??
yadi sy?t te?u vai?amya?
ka? y?nti ?ara?a? praj??
praj?n?m—of the citizens; pitara?—protectors, guardians (kings or government servants); ye—they who; ca—and; ??st?ra?—give instructions concerning law and order; s?dhava?—endowed with all good qualities; sam??—equal to everyone; yadi—if; sy?t—there is; te?u—among them; vai?amyam—partiality; kam—what; y?nti—will go to; ?ara?am—shelter; praj??—the citizens.
A king or governmental official should be so well qualified that he acts as a father, maintainer and protector of the citizens because of affection and love. He should give the citizens good advice and instructions according to the standard scriptures and should be equal to everyone. Yamar?ja does this, for he is the supreme master of justice, and so do those who follow in his footsteps. However, if such persons become polluted and exhibit partiality by punishing an innocent, blameless person, where will the citizens go to take shelter for their maintenance and security?
The king, or in modern times the government, should act as the guardian of the citizens by teaching them the proper goal of life. The human form of life is especially meant for realization of one’s self and one’s relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead because this cannot be realized in animal life. The duty of the government, therefore, is to take charge of training all the citizens in such a way that by a gradual process they will be elevated to the spiritual platform and will realize the self and his relationship with God. This principle was followed by kings like Mah?r?ja Yudhi??hira, Mah?r?ja Par?k?it, Lord R?macandra, Mah?r?ja Ambar??a and Prahl?da Mah?r?ja. The leaders of the government must be very honest and religious because otherwise all the affairs of the state will suffer. Unfortunately, in the name of democracy, rogues and thieves are electing other rogues and thieves to the most important posts in the government. Recently this has been proven in America, where the president had to be condemned and dragged down from his post by the citizens. This is only one case, but there are many others. Because of the importance of the K???a consciousness movement, people should be K???a conscious and should not vote for anyone who is not K???a conscious. Then there will be actual peace and prosperity in the state. When a Vai??ava sees mismanagement in the government, he feels great compassion in his heart and tries his best to purify the situation by spreading the Hare K???a movement.
yad yad ?carati ?rey?n
itaras tat tad ?hate
sa yat pram??a? kurute
lokas tad anuvartate
yat yat—whatever; ?carati—executes; ?rey?n—a first-class man with full knowledge of religious principles; itara?—the subordinate man; tat tat—that; ?hate—performs; sa?—he (the great man); yat—whatever; pram??am—as evidence or as the right thing; kurute—accepts; loka?—the general public; tat—that; anuvartate—follows.
The mass of people follow the example of a leader in society and imitate his behavior. They accept as evidence whatever the leader accepts.
Although Aj?mila was not punishable, the Yamad?tas were insisting on taking him away to Yamar?ja for punishment. This was adharma, contrary to religious principles. The Vi??ud?tas feared that if such irreligious acts were allowed, the management of human society would be spoiled. In modern times, the K???a consciousness movement is trying to introduce the right principles of management for human society, but unfortunately the governments of Kali-yuga do not properly support the Hare K???a movement because they do not appreciate its valuable service. The Hare K???a movement is the right movement for ameliorating the fallen condition of human society, and therefore governments and public leaders in every part of the world should support this movement to completely rectify humanity’s sinful condition.
yasy??ke ?ira ?dh?ya
loka? svapiti nirv?ta?
svaya? dharmam adharma? v?
na hi veda yath? pa?u?
sa katha? nyarpit?tm?na?
sagh??o dogdhum arhati
yasya—of whom; a?ke—on the lap; ?ira?—the head; ?dh?ya—placing; loka?—the general mass of people; svapiti—sleep; nirv?ta?—in peace; svayam—personally; dharmam—religious principles or the goal of life; adharmam—irreligious principles; v?—or; na—not; hi—indeed; veda—know; yath?—exactly like; pa?u?—an animal; sa?—such a person; katham—how; nyarpita-?tm?nam—unto the living entity who has fully surrendered; k?ta-maitram—endowed with good faith and friendship; acetanam—with undeveloped consciousness, foolish; visrambha??ya?—deserving to be the object of faith; bh?t?n?m—of the living entities; sa-gh??a?—who has a soft heart for the good of all people; dogdhum—to give pain; arhati—is able.
People in general are not very advanced in knowledge by which to discriminate between religion and irreligion. The innocent, unenlightened citizen is like an ignorant animal sleeping in peace with its head on the lap of its master, faithfully believing in the master’s protection. If a leader is actually kindhearted and deserves to be the object of a living entity’s faith, how can he punish or kill a foolish person who has fully surrendered in good faith and friendship?
The Sanskrit word vi?vasta-gh?ta refers to one who breaks faith or causes a breach of trust. The mass of people should always feel security because of the government’s protection. Therefore, how regrettable it is for the government itself to cause a breach of trust and put the citizens in difficulty for political reasons. We actually saw during the partition days in India that although Hindus and Muslims were living together peacefully, manipulation by politicians suddenly aroused feelings of hatred between them, and thus the Hindus and Muslims killed one another over politics. This is a sign of Kali-yuga. In this age, animals are kept nicely sheltered, completely confident that their masters will protect them, but unfortunately as soon as the animals are fat, they are immediately sent for slaughter. Such cruelty is condemned by Vai??avas like the Vi??ud?tas. Indeed, the hellish conditions already described await the sinful men responsible for such suffering. One who betrays the confidence of a living entity who takes shelter of him in good faith, whether that living entity be a human being or an animal, is extremely sinful. Because such betrayals now go unpunished by the government, all of human society is terribly contaminated. The people of this age are therefore described as mand?? sumanda-matayo manda-bh?gy? hy upadrut?? [SB 1.1.10]. As a consequence of such sinfulness, men are condemned (mand??), their intelligence is unclear (sumanda-mataya?), they are unfortunate (manda-bh?gy??), and therefore they are always disturbed by many problems (upadrut??). This is their situation in this life, and after death they are punished in hellish conditions.
aya? hi k?ta-nirve?o
yad vy?jah?ra viva?o
n?ma svasty-ayana? hare?
ayam—this person (Aj?mila); hi—indeed; k?ta-nirve?a?—has undergone all kinds of atonement; janma—of births; ko?i—of millions; a?has?m—for the sinful activities; api—even; yat—because; vy?jah?ra—he has chanted; viva?a?—in a helpless condition; n?ma—the holy name; svasti-ayanam—the means of liberation; hare?—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Aj?mila has already atoned for all his sinful actions. Indeed, he has atoned not only for sins performed in one life but for those performed in millions of lives, for in a helpless condition he chanted the holy name of N?r?ya?a. Even though he did not chant purely, he chanted without offense, and therefore he is now pure and eligible for liberation.
The Yamad?tas had considered only the external situation of Aj?mila. Since he was extremely sinful throughout his life, they thought he should be taken to Yamar?ja and did not know that he had become free from the reactions of all his sins. The Vi??ud?tas therefore instructed that because he had chanted the four syllables of the name N?r?ya?a at the time of his death, he was freed from all sinful reactions. In this regard ?r?la Vi?van?tha Cakravart? ?h?kura quotes the following verses from the sm?ti-??stra:
n?mno hi y?vat? ?akti?
t?vat kartu? na ?aknoti
p?taka? p?tak? nara?
“Simply by chanting one holy name of Hari, a sinful man can counteract the reactions to more sins than he is able to commit.” (B?had-vi??u Pur??a)
pum?n vimucyate sadya?
si?ha-trastair m?gair iva
“If one chants the holy name of the Lord, even in a helpless condition or without desiring to do so, all the reactions of his sinful life depart, just as when a lion roars, all the small animals flee in fear.” (Garu?a Pur??a)
sak?d ucc?rita? yena
harir ity ak?ara-dvayam
mok??ya gamana? prati
“By once chanting the holy name of the Lord, which consists of the two syllables ha-ri, one guarantees his path to liberation.” (Skanda Pur??a)
These are some of the reasons why the Vi??ud?tas objected to the Yamad?tas’ taking Aj?mila to the court of Yamar?ja.
etenaiva hy aghono ’sya
k?ta? sy?d agha-ni?k?tam
etena—by this (chanting); eva—indeed; hi—certainly; aghona?—who possesses sinful reactions; asya—of this (Aj?mila); k?tam—performed; sy?t—is; agha—of sins; ni?k?tam—complete atonement; yad?—when; n?r?ya?a—O N?r?ya?a (the name of his son); ?ya—please come; iti—thus; jag?da—he chanted; catu?-ak?aram—the four syllables (n?-r?-ya-?a).
The Vi??ud?tas continued: Even previously, while eating and at other times, this Aj?mila would call his son, saying, “My dear N?r?ya?a, please come here.” Although calling the name of his son, he nevertheless uttered the four syllables n?-r?-ya-?a. Simply by chanting the name of N?r?ya?a in this way, he sufficiently atoned for the sinful reactions of millions of lives.
Previously, when engaged in sinful activities to maintain his family, Aj?mila chanted the name of N?r?ya?a without offenses. To chant the holy name of the Lord just to counteract one’s sinful activities, or to commit sinful activities on the strength of chanting the holy name, is offensive (n?mno bal?d yasya hi p?pa-buddhi?). But although Aj?mila engaged in sinful activities, he never chanted the holy name of N?r?ya?a to counteract them; he simply chanted the name N?r?ya?a to call his son. Therefore his chanting was effective. Because of chanting the holy name of N?r?ya?a in this way, he had already vanquished the accumulated sinful reactions of many, many lives. In the beginning he was pure, but although he later committed many sinful acts, he was offenseless because he did not chant the holy name of N?r?ya?a to counteract them. One who always chants the holy name of the Lord without offenses is always pure. As confirmed in this verse Aj?mila was already sinless, and because he chanted the name of N?r?ya?a he remained sinless. It did not matter that he was calling his son; the name itself was effective.
stena? sur?-po mitra-dhrug
ye ca p?takino ’pare
sarve??m apy aghavat?m
idam eva suni?k?tam
yatas tad-vi?ay? mati?
stena?—one who steals; sur?-pa?—a drunkard; mitra-dhruk—one who turns against a friend or relative; brahma-h?—one who kills a br?hma?a; guru-talpa-ga?—one who indulges in sex with the wife of his teacher or guru; str?—women; r?ja—king; pit?—father; go—of cows; hant?—the killer; ye—those who; ca—also; p?takina?—committed sinful activities; apare—many others; sarve??m—of all of them; api—although; agha-vat?m—persons who have committed many sins; idam—this; eva—certainly; su-ni?k?tam—perfect atonement; n?ma-vy?hara?am—chanting of the holy name; vi??o?—of Lord Vi??u; yata?—because of which; tat-vi?ay?—on the person who chants the holy name; mati?—His attention.
The chanting of the holy name of Lord Vi??u is the best process of atonement for a thief of gold or other valuables, for a drunkard, for one who betrays a friend or relative, for one who kills a br?hma?a, or for one who indulges in sex with the wife of his guru or another superior. It is also the best method of atonement for one who murders women, the king or his father, for one who slaughters cows, and for all other sinful men. Simply by chanting the holy name of Lord Vi??u, such sinful persons may attract the attention of the Supreme Lord, who therefore considers, “Because this man has chanted My holy name, My duty is to give him protection.”
na ni?k?tair uditair brahma-v?dibhis
tath? vi?uddhyaty aghav?n vrat?dibhi?
yath? harer n?ma-padair ud?h?tais
na—not; ni?k?tai?—by the processes of atonement; uditai?—prescribed; brahma-v?dibhi?—by learned scholars such as Manu; tath?—to that extent; vi?uddhyati—becomes purified; agha-v?n—a sinful man; vrata-?dibhi?—by observing the vows and regulative principles; yath?—as; hare?—of Lord Hari; n?ma-padai?—by the syllables of the holy name; ud?h?tai?—chanted; tat—that; uttama?loka—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; gu?a—of the transcendental qualities; upalambhakam—reminding one.
By following the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies or undergoing atonement, sinful men do not become as purified as by chanting once the holy name of Lord Hari. Although ritualistic atonement may free one from sinful reactions, it does not awaken devotional service, unlike the chanting of the Lord’s names, which reminds one of the Lord’s fame, qualities, attributes, pastimes and paraphernalia.
?r?la Vi?van?tha Cakravart? ?h?kura comments that the chanting of the holy name of the Lord has special significance that distinguishes it from the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies of atonement for severe, more severe or most severe sinful actions. There are twenty types of religious scriptures called dharma-??stras, beginning with the Manu-sa?hit? and par??ara-sa?hit?, but herein it is stressed that although one may become free from the reactions of the most sinful activities by following the religious principles of these scriptures, this cannot promote a sinful man to the stage of loving service to the Lord. On the other hand, chanting the holy name of the Lord even once not only frees one immediately from the reactions of the greatest sins, but also raises one to the platform of rendering loving service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is described as uttama?loka because He is famous for His glorious activities. Thus one serves the Lord by remembering His form, His attributes and pastimes. ?r?la Vi?van?tha Cakravart? ?h?kura explains that this is all possible simply by chanting the Lord’s holy name because of the Lord’s omnipotence. What cannot be achieved through the performance of Vedic rituals can be easily achieved through the chanting of the Lord’s holy name. To chant the holy name and dance in ecstasy is so easy and sublime that one can achieve all the benefits of spiritual life simply by following this process. Therefore ?r? Caitanya Mah?prabhu declares, para? vijayate ?r?-k???a-sa?k?rtanam: “All glories to ?r? K???a sa?k?rtana!” The sa?k?rtana movement we have started offers the best process for becoming purified of all sinful reactions and coming immediately to the platform of spiritual life.
naik?ntika? tad dhi k?te ’pi ni?k?te
mana? punar dh?vati ced asat-pathe
tat karma-nirh?ram abh?psat?? harer
gu??nuv?da? khalu sattva-bh?vana?
na—not; aik?ntikam—absolutely cleansed; tat—the heart; hi—because; k?te—very nicely performed; api—although; ni?k?te—atonement; mana?—the mind; puna?—again; dh?vati—runs; cet—if; asat-pathe—on the path of material activities; tat—therefore; karma-nirh?ram—cessation of the fruitive reactions of material activities; abh?psat?m—for those who seriously want; hare?—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; gu?a-anuv?da?—constant chanting of the glories; khalu—indeed; sattva-bh?vana?—actually purifying one’s existence.
The ritualistic ceremonies of atonement recommended in the religious scriptures are insufficient to cleanse the heart absolutely because after atonement one’s mind again runs toward material activities. Consequently, for one who wants liberation from the fruitive reactions of material activities, the chanting of the Hare K???a mantra, or glorification of the name, fame and pastimes of the Lord, is recommended as the most perfect process of atonement because such chanting eradicates the dirt from one’s heart completely.
The statements in this verse have been confirmed previously in ?r?mad-Bh?gavatam (1.2.17):
???vat?? sva-kath?? k???a?
h?dy anta?-stho hy abhadr??i
vidhunoti suh?t sat?m
“?r? K???a, the Personality of Godhead, who is the Param?tm? [Supersoul] in everyone’s heart and the benefactor of the truthful devotee, cleanses desire for material enjoyment from the heart of the devotee who relishes His messages, which are in themselves virtuous when properly heard and chanted.” It is the special mercy of the Supreme Lord that as soon as He knows that one is glorifying His name, fame and attributes, He personally helps cleanse the dirt from one’s heart. Therefore simply by such glorification one not only becomes purified, but also achieves the results of pious activities (pu?ya-?rava?a-k?rtana). Pu?ya-?rava?a-k?rtana refers to the process of devotional service. Even if one does not understand the meaning of the Lord’s name, pastimes or attributes, one is purified simply by hearing or chanting of them. Such purification is called sattva-bh?vana.
One’s main purpose in human life should be to purify his existence and achieve liberation. As long as one has a material body, one is understood to be impure. In such an impure, material condition, one cannot enjoy a truly blissful life, although everyone seeks it. Therefore ?r?mad-Bh?gavatam (5.5.1) says, tapo divya? putrak? yena sattva? ?uddhyet: one must perform tapasya, austerity, to purify his existence in order to come to the spiritual platform. The tapasya of chanting and glorifying the name, fame and attributes of the Lord is a very easy purifying process by which everyone can be happy. Therefore everyone who desires the ultimate cleansing of his heart must adopt this process. Other processes, such as karma, jñ?na and yoga, cannot cleanse the heart absolutely.
yad asau bhagavan-n?ma
atha—therefore; enam—him (Aj?mila); m?—do not; apanayata—try to take; k?ta—already done; a?e?a—unlimited; agha-ni?k?tam—atonement for his sinful actions; yat—because; asau—he; bhagavat-n?ma—the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mriyam??a?—while dying; samagrah?t—perfectly chanted.
At the time of death, this Aj?mila helplessly and very loudly chanted the holy name of the Lord, N?r?ya?a. That chanting alone has already freed him from the reactions of all sinful life. Therefore, O servants of Yamar?ja, do not try to take him to your master for punishment in hellish conditions.
The Vi??ud?tas, who are superior authorities, gave orders to the Yamad?tas, who did not know that Aj?mila was no longer subject to tribulation in hellish life for his past sins. Although he had chanted the holy name N?r?ya?a to indicate his son, the holy name is so transcendentally powerful that he was automatically freed because he had chanted the holy name while dying (ante n?r?ya?a-sm?ti?). As K???a confirms in Bhagavad-g?t? (7.28):
ye??? tv anta-gata? p?pa?
bhajante m?? d??ha-vrat??
“Persons who have acted piously in previous lives and in this life, whose sinful actions are completely eradicated and who are freed from the duality of delusion, engage themselves in My service with determination.” Unless one is freed from all sinful reactions, one cannot be promoted to the platform of devotional service. Elsewhere in Bhagavad-g?t? (8.5) it is stated:
anta-k?le ca m?m eva
smaran muktv? kalevaram
ya? pray?ti sa mad-bh?va?
y?ti n?sty atra sa??aya?
If one remembers K???a, N?r?ya?a, at the time of death, one is certainly eligible to return immediately home, back to Godhead.
s??ketya? p?rih?sya? v?
stobha? helanam eva v?
s??ketyam—as an assignation; p?rih?syam—jokingly; v?—or; stobham—as musical entertainment; helanam—neglectfully; eva—certainly; v?—or; vaiku??ha—of the Lord; n?ma-graha?am—chanting the holy name; a?e?a—unlimited; agha-haram—neutralizing the effect of sinful life; vidu?—advanced transcendentalists know.
One who chants the holy name of the Lord is immediately freed from the reactions of unlimited sins, even if he chants indirectly [to indicate something else], jokingly, for musical entertainment, or even neglectfully. This is accepted by all the learned scholars of the scriptures.
patita? skhalito bhagna?
sanda??as tapta ?hata?
harir ity ava?en?ha
pum?n n?rhati y?tan??
patita?—fallen down; skhalita?—slipped; bhagna?—having broken his bones; sanda??a?—bitten; tapta?—severely attacked by fever or similar painful conditions; ?hata?—injured; hari?—Lord K???a; iti—thus; ava?ena—accidentally; ?ha—chants; pum?n—a person; na—not; arhati—deserves; y?tan??—hellish conditions.
If one chants the holy name of Hari and then dies because of an accidental misfortune, such as falling from the top of a house, slipping and suffering broken bones while traveling on the road, being bitten by a serpent, being afflicted with pain and high fever, or being injured by a weapon, one is immediately absolved from having to enter hellish life, even though he is sinful.
As stated in Bhagavad-g?t? (8.6):
ya? ya? v?pi smaran bh?va?
tyajaty ante kalevaram
ta? tam evaiti kaunteya
“Whatever state of being one remembers when he quits his body, that state he will attain without fail.” If one practices chanting the Hare K???a mantra, he is naturally expected to chant Hare K???a when he meets with some accident. Even without such practice, however, if one somehow or other chants the holy name of the Lord (Hare K???a) when he meets with an accident and dies, he will be saved from hellish life after death.
gur???? ca lagh?n?? ca
gur??i ca lagh?ni ca
gur???m—heavy; ca—and; lagh?n?m—light; ca—also; gur??i—heavy; ca—and; lagh?ni—light; ca—also; pr?ya?citt?ni—the processes of atonement; p?p?n?m—of sinful activities; jñ?tv?—knowing perfectly well; ukt?ni—have been prescribed; mah?-??ibhi?—by great sages.
Authorities who are learned scholars and sages have carefully ascertained that one should atone for the heaviest sins by undergoing a heavy process of atonement and one should atone for lighter sins by undergoing lighter atonement. Chanting the Hare K???a mantra, however, vanquishes all the effects of sinful activities, regardless of whether heavy or light.
In this regard, ?r?la Vi?van?tha Cakravart? ?h?kura describes an incident that took place when S?mba was rescued from the punishment of the Kauravas. S?mba fell in love with the daughter of Duryodhana, and since according to k?atriya custom one is not offered a k?atriya’s daughter unless he displays his chivalrous valor, S?mba abducted her. Consequently S?mba was arrested by the Kauravas. Later, when Lord Balar?ma came to rescue him, there was an argument about S?mba’s release. Since the argument was not settled, Balar?ma showed His power in such a way that all of Hastin?pura trembled and would have been vanquished as if by a great earthquake. Then the matter was settled, and S?mba married Duryodhana’s daughter. The purport is that one should take shelter of K???a-Balar?ma, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose protective power is so great that it cannot be equaled in the material world. However powerful the reactions of one’s sins, they will immediately be vanquished if one chants the name of Hari, K???a, Balar?ma or N?r?ya?a.
tais t?ny agh?ni p?yante
tai?—by those; t?ni—all those; agh?ni—sinful activities and their results; p?yante—become vanquished; tapa?—austerity; d?na—charity; vrata-?dibhi?—by vows and other such activities; na—not; adharma-jam—produced from irreligious actions; tat—of that; h?dayam—the heart; tat—that; api—also; ??a-a?ghri—of the lotus feet of the Lord; sevay?—by service.
Although one may neutralize the reactions of sinful life through austerity, charity, vows and other such methods, these pious activities cannot uproot the material desires in one’s heart. However, if one serves the lotus feet of the Personality of Godhead, he is immediately freed from all such contaminations.
As stated in ?r?mad-Bh?gavatam (11.2.42), bhakti? pare??nubhavo viraktir anyatra ca: devotional service is so powerful that one who performs devotional service is immediately freed from all sinful desires. All desires within this material world are sinful because material desire means sense gratification, which always involves action that is more or less sinful. Pure bhakti, however, is any?bhil??it?-??nya; in other words, it is free from material desires, which result from karma and jñ?na. One who is situated in devotional service no longer has material desires, and therefore he is beyond sinful life. Material desires should be completely stopped. Otherwise, although one’s austerities, penances and charity may free one from sin for the time being, one’s desires will reappear because his heart is impure. Thus he will act sinfully and suffer.
ajñ?n?d athav? jñ?n?d
sa?k?rtitam agha? pu?so
dahed edho yath?nala?
ajñ?n?t—out of ignorance; athav?—or; jñ?n?t—with knowledge; uttama?loka—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; n?ma—the holy name; yat—that which; sa?k?rtitam—chanted; agham—sin; pu?sa?—of a person; dahet—burns to ashes; edha?—dry grass; yath?—just as; anala?—fire.
As a fire burns dry grass to ashes, so the holy name of the Lord, whether chanted knowingly or unknowingly, burns to ashes, without fail, all the reactions of one’s sinful activities.
Fire will act, regardless of whether handled by an innocent child or by someone well aware of its power. For example, if a field of straw or dry grass is set afire, either by an elderly man who knows the power of fire or by a child who does not, the grass will be burned to ashes. Similarly, one may or may not know the power of chanting the Hare K???a mantra, but if one chants the holy name he will become free from all sinful reactions.
aj?nato ’py ?tma-gu?a?
kury?n mantro ’py ud?h?ta?
yath?—just like; agadam—medicine; v?rya-tamam—very powerful; upayuktam—properly taken; yad?cchay?—somehow or other; aj?nata?—by a person without knowledge; api—even; ?tma-gu?am—its own potency; kury?t—manifests; mantra?—the Hare K???a mantra; api—also; ud?h?ta?—chanted.
If a person unaware of the effective potency of a certain medicine takes that medicine or is forced to take it, it will act even without his knowledge because its potency does not depend on the patient’s understanding. Similarly, even though one does not know the value of chanting the holy name of the Lord, if one chants knowingly or unknowingly, the chanting will be very effective.
In the Western countries, where the Hare K???a movement is spreading, learned scholars and other thoughtful men are realizing its effectiveness. For example, Dr. J. Stillson Judah, a learned scholar, has been very much attracted to this movement because he has actually seen that it is turning hippies addicted to drugs into pure Vai??avas who voluntarily become servants of K???a and humanity. Even a few years ago, such hippies did not know the Hare K???a mantra, but now they are chanting it and becoming pure Vai??avas. Thus they are becoming free from all sinful activities, such as illicit sex, intoxication, meat-eating and gambling. This is practical proof of the effectiveness of the Hare K???a movement, which is supported in this verse. One may or may not know the value of chanting the Hare K???a mantra, but if one somehow or other chants it, he will immediately be purified, just as one who takes a potent medicine will feel its effects, regardless of whether he takes it knowingly or unknowingly.
ta eva? suvinir??ya
dharma? bh?gavata? n?pa
ta? y?mya-p???n nirmucya
vipra? m?tyor am?mucan
?r?-?uka? uv?ca—?r? ?ukadeva Gosv?m? said; te—they (the order carriers of Lord Vi??u); evam—thus; su-vinir??ya—perfectly ascertaining; dharmam—real religion; bh?gavatam—in terms of devotional service; n?pa—O King; tam—him (Aj?mila); y?mya-p???t—from the bondage of the order carriers of Yamar?ja; nirmucya—releasing; vipram—the br?hma?a; m?tyo?—from death; am?mucan—rescued.
?r? ?ukadeva Gosv?m? continued: My dear King, having thus perfectly judged the principles of devotional service with reasoning and arguments, the order carriers of Lord Vi??u released the br?hma?a Aj?mila from the bondage of the Yamad?tas and saved him from imminent death.
iti pratyudit? y?my?
d?t? y?tv? yam?ntikam
yama-r?jñe yath? sarvam
iti—thus; pratyudit??—having been replied to (by the order carriers of Vi??u); y?my??—the servants of Yamar?ja; d?t??—the messengers; y?tv?—going; yama-antikam—to the abode of Lord Yamar?ja; yama-r?jñe—unto King Yamar?ja; yath?—duly; sarvam—everything; ?cacak?u?—informed in full detail; arindama—O subduer of the enemies.
My dear Mah?r?ja Par?k?it, O subduer of all enemies, after the servants of Yamar?ja had been answered by the order carriers of Lord Vi??u, they went to Yamar?ja and explained to him everything that had happened.
In this verse the word pratyudit?? is very significant. The servants of Yamar?ja are so powerful that they can never be hindered anywhere, but this time they were baffled and disappointed in their attempt to take away a man they considered sinful. Therefore they immediately returned to Yamar?ja and described to him everything that had happened.
dvija? p???d vinirmukto
gata-bh?? prak?ti? gata?
vavande ?iras? vi??o?
dvija?—the br?hma?a (Aj?mila); p???t—from the noose; vinirmukta?—being released; gata-bh??—freed from fear; prak?tim gata?—came to his senses; vavande—offered his respectful obeisances; ?iras?—by bowing his head; vi??o?—of Lord Vi??u; ki?kar?n—unto the servants; dar?ana-utsava?—very pleased by seeing them.
Having been released from the nooses of Yamar?ja’s servants, the br?hma?a Aj?mila, now free from fear, came to his senses and immediately offered obeisances to the Vi??ud?tas by bowing his head at their lotus feet. He was extremely pleased by their presence, for he had seen them save his life from the hands of the servants of Yamar?ja.
Vai??avas are also Vi??ud?tas because they carry out the orders of K???a. Lord K???a is very eager for all the conditioned souls rotting in this material world to surrender to Him and be saved from material pangs in this life and punishment in hellish conditions after death. A Vai??ava therefore tries to bring conditioned souls to their senses. Those who are fortunate like Aj?mila are saved by the Vi??ud?tas, or Vai??avas, and thus they return back home, back to Godhead.
ta? vivak?um abhipretya
sahas? pa?yatas tasya
tam—him (Aj?mila); vivak?um—desiring to speak; abhipretya—understanding; mah?puru?a-ki?kar??—the order carriers of Lord Vi??u; sahas?—suddenly; pa?yata? tasya—while he looked on; tatra—there; antardadhire—disappeared; anagha—O sinless Mah?r?ja Par?k?it.
O sinless Mah?r?ja Par?k?it, the order carriers of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Vi??ud?tas, saw that Aj?mila was attempting to say something, and thus they suddenly disappeared from his presence.
The ??stras say:
p?pi??h? ye dur?c?r?
ak?le mara?a? dhruvam
“For persons who are p?pi??ha, very sinful, and dur?c?ra, misbehaved or very unclean in their habits, who are against the existence of God, who disrespect Vai??avas and br?hma?as, and who eat anything and everything, untimely death is sure.” It is said that in Kali-yuga one has a maximum lifetime of one hundred years, but as people become degraded, the duration of their lives decreases (pr?ye??lp?yu?a?). Because Aj?mila was now free from all sinful reactions, his lifetime was extended, even though he was to have died immediately. When the Vi??ud?tas saw Aj?mila trying to say something to them, they disappeared to give him a chance to glorify the Supreme Lord. Since all his sinful reactions had been vanquished, he was now prepared to glorify the Lord. Indeed, one cannot glorify the Lord unless one is completely free from all sinful activities. This is confirmed by K???a Himself in Bhagavad-g?t? (7.28):
ye??? tv anta-gata? p?pa?
bhajante m?? d??ha-vrat??
“Persons who have acted piously in previous lives and in this life, whose sinful actions are completely eradicated and who are freed from the duality of delusion, engage themselves in My service with determination.” The Vi??ud?tas made Aj?mila aware of devotional service so that He might immediately become fit to return home, back to Godhead. To increase his eagerness to glorify the Lord, they disappeared so that he would feel separation in their absence. In the mode of separation, glorification of the Lord is very intense.
aj?milo ’py ath?kar?ya
dharma? bh?gavata? ?uddha?
trai-vedya? ca gu???rayam
bhaktim?n bhagavaty ??u
anut?po mah?n ?s?t
smarato ’?ubham ?tmana?
aj?mila?—Aj?mila; api—also; atha—thereafter; ?kar?ya—hearing; d?t?n?m—of the order carriers; yama-k???ayo?—of Yamar?ja and Lord K???a; dharmam—actual religious principles; bh?gavatam—as described in ?r?mad-Bh?gavatam, or concerning the relationship between the living being and the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ?uddham—pure; trai-vedyam—mentioned in three Vedas; ca—also; gu?a-a?rayam—material religion, under the modes of material nature; bhakti-m?n—a pure devotee (cleansed of the modes of material nature); bhagavati—unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ??u—immediately; m?h?tmya—glorification of the name, fame, etc.; ?rava??t—because of hearing; hare?—of Lord Hari; anut?pa?—regret; mah?n—very great; ?s?t—there was; smarata?—remembering; a?ubham—all the inglorious activities; ?tmana?—done by himself.
After hearing the discourses between the Yamad?tas and the Vi??ud?tas, Aj?mila could understand the religious principles that act under the three modes of material nature. These principles are mentioned in the three Vedas. He could also understand the transcendental religious principles, which are above the modes of material nature and which concern the relationship between the living being and the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Furthermore, Aj?mila heard glorification of the name, fame, qualities and pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He thus became a perfectly pure devotee. He could then remember his past sinful activities, which he greatly regretted having performed.
In Bhagavad-g?t? (2.45) Lord K???a told Arjuna:
“The Vedas mainly deal with the subject of the three modes of material nature. Rise above these modes, O Arjuna. Be transcendental to all of them. Be free from all dualities and from all anxieties for gain and safety, and be established in the Self.” The Vedic principles certainly prescribe a gradual process for rising to the spiritual platform, but if one remains attached to the Vedic principles, there is no chance of his being elevated to spiritual life. K???a therefore advised Arjuna to perform devotional service, which is the process of transcendental religion. The transcendental position of devotional service is also confirmed in ?r?mad-Bh?gavatam (1.2.6). Sa vai pu?s?? paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhok?aje. Bhakti, devotional service, is paro dharma?, transcendental dharma; it is not material dharma. People generally think that religion should be pursued for material profit. This may be suitable for persons interested in material life, but one who is interested in spiritual life should be attached to paro dharma?, the religious principles by which one becomes a devotee of the Supreme Lord (yato bhaktir adhok?aje). The bh?gavata religion teaches that the Lord and the living entity are eternally related and that the duty of the living entity is to surrender to the Lord. When one is situated on the platform of devotional service, one is freed from impediments and completely satisfied (ahaituky apratihat? yay?tm? supras?dati). Having been elevated to that platform, Aj?mila began to lament for his past materialistic activities and glorify the name, fame, form and pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
aho me parama? ka??am
yena vipl?vita? brahma
aho—alas; me—my; paramam—extreme; ka??am—miserable condition; abh?t—became; avijita-?tmana?—because my senses were uncontrolled; yena—by which; vipl?vitam—destroyed; brahma—all my brahminical qualifications; v??aly?m—through a ??dr???, a maidservant; j?yat?—being born; ?tman?—by me.
Aj?mila said: Alas, being a servant of my senses, how degraded I became! I fell down from my position as a duly qualified br?hma?a and begot children in the womb of a prostitute.
The men of the hig