Rig Veda 10.129

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Rig Veda 10.129

Ṛṣi (sage/seer): prajāpatiḥ parameṣṭhī [prajāpati parameṣṭhī];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): bhāvavṛttam ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

नासदासीन्नो सदासीत्तदानीं नासीद्रजो नो व्योमा परो यत् ।
किमावरीवः कुह कस्य शर्मन्नम्भः किमासीद्गहनं गभीरम् ॥
nāsad āsīn no sad āsīt tadānīṃ nāsīd rajo no vyomā paro yat |
kim āvarīvaḥ kuha kasya śarmann ambhaḥ kim āsīd gahanaṃ gabhīram ||

Rig Veda 10.129 .1

“The non-existent was not, the existent was not; then the world was not, not the firmament, nor that which is above (the firmament). How could there by any investing envelope, and where? Of what (could there be)felicity? How (could there be) the deep unfathomable water?”

नासदासीन्नो सदासीत्तदानीं नासीद्रजो नो व्योमा परो यत् ।
किमावरीवः कुह कस्य शर्मन्नम्भः किमासीद्गहनं गभीरम् ॥
nāsad āsīn no sad āsīt tadānīṃ nāsīd rajo no vyomā paro yat |
kim āvarīvaḥ kuha kasya śarmann ambhaḥ kim āsīd gahanaṃ gabhīram ||

Rig Veda 10.129.2

“Death was not nor at that period immortality, there was no indication of day, of night; That One unbreathed upon breathed of his own strength, other than That there was nothing else whatever.”

तम आसीत्तमसा गूळ्हमग्रेऽप्रकेतं सलिलं सर्वमा इदम् ।
तुच्छ्येनाभ्वपिहितं यदासीत्तपसस्तन्महिनाजायतैकम् ॥
tama āsīt tamasā gūḻham agre 'praketaṃ salilaṃ sarvam ā idam |
tucchyenābhv apihitaṃ yad āsīt tapasas tan mahinājāyataikam ||

Rig Veda 10.129.3

“There was darkness covered by darkness in the beginning, all this (world) was undistinguishable water; that empty united (world) which was covered by a mere nothing, was produced through the power of austerity.”

कामस्तदग्रे समवर्तताधि मनसो रेतः प्रथमं यदासीत् ।
सतो बन्धुमसति निरविन्दन्हृदि प्रतीष्या कवयो मनीषा ॥
kāmas tad agre sam avartatādhi manaso retaḥ prathamaṃ yad āsīt |
sato bandhum asati nir avindan hṛdi pratīṣyā kavayo manīṣā ||

Rig Veda 10.129.4

“In the beginning there was desire, which was the first seed of mind; sages having meditated in their hearts have discovered by their wisdom the connexion of the existent with te non-existent.”

तिरश्चीनो विततो रश्मिरेषामधः स्विदासी३दुपरि स्विदासी३त् ।
रेतोधा आसन्महिमान आसन्त्स्वधा अवस्तात्प्रयतिः परस्तात् ॥
tiraścīno vitato raśmir eṣām adhaḥ svid āsīd upari svid āsīt |
retodhā āsan mahimāna āsan svadhā avastāt prayatiḥ parastāt ||

Rig Veda 10.129.5

“Their ray was stretched out, whether across, or below, or above; (some) were shredders of seed,(others) were mighty; food was inferior; the eater was superior.”

को अद्धा वेद क इह प्र वोचत्कुत आजाता कुत इयं विसृष्टिः ।
अर्वाग्देवा अस्य विसर्जनेनाथा को वेद यत आबभूव ॥
ko addhā veda ka iha pra vocat kuta ājātā kuta iyaṃ visṛṣṭiḥ |
arvāg devā asya visarjanenāthā ko veda yata ābabhūva ||

Rig Veda 10.129.6

“Who really knows? Who in this world may declare it! whence was this creation, whence was it engendered? The gods (were) subsequent to the (world's) creation; so who knows whence it arose?”

इयं विसृष्टिर्यत आबभूव यदि वा दधे यदि वा न ।
यो अस्याध्यक्षः परमे व्योमन्त्सो अङ्ग वेद यदि वा न वेद ॥
iyaṃ visṛṣṭir yata ābabhūva yadi vā dadhe yadi vā na |
yo asyādhyakṣaḥ parame vyoman so aṅga veda yadi vā na veda ||

Rig Veda 10.129.7

“He from whom this creation arose, he may uphold it, or he may not (no one else can); he who is its superintendent in the highest heaven, he assuredly knows, or if he knows not (no one else does).”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

The non-existent: sat, asat: visible and invisible existence (asat śaśaviṣāṇavatrirupākhyam nāsīt: Taittirīya Saṃhitā 7.1.5.1); matter and spirit, prakṛtiand puruṣa; the First Cause or Brahmā was in the beginning undeveloped in its effects, and existed before both; investing envelope: each element as created or developed is invested by its rudiment; of what could therebe felicity: i.e., of whom or of what living being could enjoyment, or fruition, whether of pain or plural a sure, be predicated, there being no life?

Breathed: svadhā = māyā, or prakṛti (illusion or nature), the source of the world of phenomena; Śa = breathed alongwith māyā

Austerity: tapas = not penance, but the contemplation of things which were to be created: yahsarvajñaḥ sarvavit yasya jñānamayam tapaḥ: Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad 1.1.9

Desire: i.e., in the mind of the Supreme Being

Their ray was stretched out: a reference to the suddenness of creation, which was developed in the twinkling of an eye, like the flash of the sun's ray. It was so quick that it was doubtful whether the things in the central space (across) were created first, or those above or those below; i.e., creation took plural ce simultaneously in all three portions of the universe. This was the order in which things were created, but the development of the world was like a flash of lightning, so that the series could not be distinguished (tatsṛṣṭvā tadevānuprāviṣat: Taittirīya Āraṇyaka 8.6). Thus the notion of a series,viz., from ātmā came the ākāśa, from the ākāśa the wind, from the wind fire etc., is reconciled: ātmanaākāśaḥ sambhūta ākāśādvāyurvāyoragniḥ: Taittirīya Āraṇyaka 8.1; whether across, or below, or above: tiraścinaḥ = across, tiryaksrotas, that in which the stream of life is horizontal, i.e., the animal world;among the created objects some were living creatures, others were great, as the sky etc., the former being the enjoyers (bhoktāraḥ), the latter the things to be enjoyed (bhojyaḥ), so the creation was distinguished as the food and the feeder

When cewas it engendered: i.e., from what material cause, and from what creative cause, did it arise?

Sa bhagavahkasmin pratiṣṭhita: Chāndogya Upaniṣad 7.24.1

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

न । असत् । आसीत् । नो इति । सत् । आसीत् । तदानीम् । न । आसीत् । रजः । नो इति । विओम । परः । यत् । किम् । आ । अवरीवरिति । कुह । कस्य । शर्मन् । अम्भः । किम् । आसीत् । गहनम् । गभीरम् ॥
na | asat | āsīt | no iti | sat | āsīt | tadānīm | na | āsīt | rajaḥ | no iti | vi-oma | paraḥ | yat | kim | ā | avarīvariti | kuha | kasya | śarman | ambhaḥ | kim | āsīt | gahanam | gabhīram

न । मृत्युः । आसीत् । अमृतम् । न । तर्हि । न । रात्र्याः । अह्नः । आसीत् । प्रकेतः । आनीत् । अवातम् । स्वधया । तत् । एकम् । तस्मात् । ह । अन्यत् । न । परः । किम् । चन । आस ॥
na | mṛtyuḥ | āsīt | amṛtam | na | tarhi | na | rātryāḥ | ahnaḥ | āsīt | pra-ketaḥ | ānīt | avātam | svadhayā | tat | ekam | tasmāt | ha | anyat | na | paraḥ | kim | cana | āsa

तमः । आसीत् । तमसा । गूळ्हम् । अग्रे । अप्रकेतम् । सलिलम् । सर्वम् । आः । इदम् । तुच्छ्येन । आभु । अपिहितम् । यत् । आसीत् । तपसः । तत् । महिना । अजायत । एकम् ॥
tamaḥ | āsīt | tamasā | gūḷham | agre | apra-ketam | salilam | sarvam | āḥ | idam | tucchyena | ābhu | api-hitam | yat | āsīt | tapasaḥ | tat | mahinā | ajāyata | ekam

कामः । तत् । अग्रे । सम् । अवर्तत । अधि । मनसः । रेतः । प्रथमम् । यत् । आसीत् । सतः । बन्धुम् । असति । निः । अविन्दन् । हृदि । प्रतीष्या । कवयः । मनीषा ॥
kāmaḥ | tat | agre | sam | avartata | adhi | manasaḥ | retaḥ | prathamam | yat | āsīt | sataḥ | bandhum | asati | niḥ | avindan | hṛdi | pratīṣyā | kavayaḥ | manīṣā

तिरश्चीनः । विततः । रश्मिः । एषाम् । अधः । स्वित् । आसी3त् । उपरि । स्वित् । आसी3त् । रेतःधाः । आसन् । महिमानः । आसन् । स्वधा । अवस्तात् । प्रयतिः । परस्तात् ॥
tiraścīnaḥ | vi-tataḥ | raśmiḥ | eṣām | adhaḥ | svit | āsī3t | upari | svit | āsī3t | retaḥ-dhāḥ | āsan | mahimānaḥ | āsan | svadhā | avastāt | pra-yatiḥ | parastāt

कः । अद्धा । वेद । कः । इह । प्र । वोचत् । कुतः । आजाता । कुतः । इयम् । विसृष्टिः । अर्वाक् । देवाः । अस्य । विसर्जनेन । अथ । कः । वेद । यतः । आबभूव ॥
kaḥ | addhā | veda | kaḥ | iha | pra | vocat | kutaḥ | ājātā | kutaḥ | iyam | vi-sṛṣṭiḥ | arvāk | devāḥ | asya | vi-sarjanena | atha | kaḥ | veda | yataḥ | ābabhūva

इयम् । विसृष्टिः । यतः । आबभूव । यदि । वा । दधे । यदि । वा । न । यः । अस्य । अधिअक्षः । परमे । विओमन् । सः । अङ्ग । वेद । यदि । वा । न । वेद ॥
iyam | vi-sṛṣṭiḥ | yataḥ | ābabhūva | yadi | vā | dadhe | yadi | vā | na | yaḥ | asya | adhi-akṣaḥ | parame | vi-oman | saḥ | aṅga | veda | yadi | vā | na | veda

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

ā < āḥ < as
[verb], singular, Imperfect. “be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

'praketaṃ < a
[adverb] “not; akāra; a [taddhita]; a [word]; a; a.”

'praketaṃ < praketam < praketa
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “sight; knowledge; appearance.”

ābabhūva < ābhū < √bhū
[verb], singular, Perfect indicative. “originate.”

adhaḥ < adhas
[adverb] “below; down; adhas [word].”

addhā
[adverb] “in truth.”

agre < agra
[noun], locative, singular, neuter. “tip; beginning; peak; end; front; top; beginning; battlefront; agra [word]; acme; fingertip; top; best; optimum; climax; matter; glans.”

ahna < ahnaḥ < ahar
[noun], genitive, singular, neuter. “day; day; ahar [word]; day; day.”

ājātā < ājan < √jan
[verb noun], nominative, singular. “be born.”

ambhaḥ < ambhas
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “water; juice; body of water; ambhas [word]; urine; perspiration.”

amṛtaṃ < amṛtam < amṛta
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “amṛta; immortality; vatsanābha; ambrosia; mercury; medicine; vighasa; calcium hydroxide.”

ānīd < ānīt < an
[verb], singular, Imperfect. “breathe.”

aṅga
[adverb] “in truth; aṅga [word]; entirely; merely.”

apihitaṃ < apihitam < apidhā < √dhā
[verb noun], nominative, singular. “cover; obstruct.”

arvāg < arvāk
[adverb] “here.”

asati < asat
[noun], locative, singular, masculine. “nonexistent; bad; wrong; wrong; asat [prefix]; dissident; fake.”

āsan < as
[verb], plural, Imperfect. “be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

āsīd < āsīt < as
[verb], singular, Imperfect. “be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

āsīn < āsīt < as
[verb], singular, Imperfect. “be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

āsīt < as
[verb], singular, Imperfect. “be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

asya < idam
[noun], genitive, singular, masculine. “this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

asyādhyakṣaḥ < asya < idam
[noun], genitive, singular, masculine. “this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

asyādhyakṣaḥ < adhyakṣaḥ < adhyakṣa
[noun], nominative, singular, masculine. “overseer; adhyakṣa [word]; mayor; head.”

āvarīvaḥ < āvarīvar < āvarvṛt < √vṛt
[verb], singular, Imperfect. “eddy; move back and forth.”

avātaṃ < a
[adverb] “not; akāra; a [taddhita]; a [word]; a; a.”

avātaṃ < vātam < vāta
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “vāta; wind; fart; Vayu; air; draft; vāta [word]; Vāta; rheumatism; Marut.”

avastāt
[adverb] “below.”

avartatādhi < avartata < vṛt
[verb], singular, Imperfect. “behave; happen; exist; return; dwell; die; roll; continue; act; exist; feed on; issue; move; travel; proceed; turn; situate; drive; account for; begin; do; inhere; revolve.”

avartatādhi < adhi
[adverb] “on; from; accordingly.”

avindan < vid
[verb], plural, Imperfect. “find; detect; marry; get; think.”

bandhum < bandhu
[noun], accusative, singular, masculine. “relative; bandhu [word]; association; friend; kin.”

canāsa < cana
[adverb] “not even; cana [word].”

canāsa < āsa < as
[verb], singular, Perfect indicative. “be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

dadhe < dhā
[verb], singular, Perfect indicative. “put; give; cause; get; hold; make; provide; lend; wear; install; have; enter (a state); supply; hold; take; show.”

devā < deva
[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine. “Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

ekaṃ < ekam < eka
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “one; single(a); alone(p); some(a); single(a); eka [word]; alone(p); excellent; each(a); some(a); one; same; alone(p); some(a); consistent; any(a); undifferentiated; disjunct.”

eṣām < idam
[noun], genitive, plural, masculine. “this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

gahanaṃ < gahanam < gahana
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “impenetrable; profound; dense; abounding in(p); inexplicable; deep.”

gabhīram < gabhīra
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “deep; profound; immeasurable; unfathomable; unfathomable; mysterious; deep; countless.”

gūḍham < guh
[verb noun], nominative, singular. “hide; cover; conceal; shroud; obscure.”

hṛdi < hṛd
[noun], locative, singular, neuter. “heart; heart; mind; breast; hṛd [word].”

idam
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

iha
[adverb] “here; now; in this world; now; below; there; here; just.”

iyaṃ < iyam < idam
[noun], nominative, singular, feminine. “this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

kāmas < kāmaḥ < kāma
[noun], nominative, singular, masculine. “wish; desire; sexual love; sexual desire; desire; Kama; sensuality; love; purpose; sexual arousal; pleasure; enjoyment; licentiousness; kāma [word]; sexual intercourse; thorn apple; wish.”

kiṃ < kim < ka
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “what; who; ka [pronoun].”

ko < kaḥ < ka
[noun], nominative, singular, masculine. “what; who; ka [pronoun].”

kuha
[adverb] “wherein.”

kuta < kutas
[adverb] “how; whence; why.”

kasya < ka
[noun], genitive, singular, masculine. “what; who; ka [pronoun].”

kavayo < kavayaḥ < kavi
[noun], nominative, plural, masculine. “poet; wise man; bard; Venus; Uśanas; kavi [word]; Kavi; prophet; guru; Brahma.”

mahimāna < mahimānaḥ < mahiman
[noun], nominative, plural, masculine. “greatness; power; mahiman.”

mahinājāyataikam < mahinā < mahi
[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter. “greatness.”

mahinājāyataikam < ajāyata < jan
[verb], singular, Imperfect. “become; originate; be born; transform; happen; result; grow; beget; produce; create; conceive; separate; cause; give birth; grow; produce; generate; be; become; arise; come on.”

mahinājāyataikam < ekam < eka
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “one; single(a); alone(p); some(a); single(a); eka [word]; alone(p); excellent; each(a); some(a); one; same; alone(p); some(a); consistent; any(a); undifferentiated; disjunct.”

manaso < manasaḥ < manas
[noun], genitive, singular, neuter. “mind; Manas; purpose; idea; attention; heart; decision; manas [word]; manas [indecl.]; spirit; temper; intelligence.”

manīṣā
[noun], instrumental, singular, feminine. “hymn; inspiration; idea; thinking; wish; consideration; intelligence.”

mṛtyur < mṛtyuḥ < mṛtyu
[noun], nominative, singular, masculine. “death; Yama; māraṇa; Mṛtyu.”

nāsad < < na
[adverb] “not; like; no; na [word].”

nāsad < asat
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “nonexistent; bad; wrong; wrong; asat [prefix]; dissident; fake.”

nāsīd < āsīt < as
[verb], singular, Imperfect. “be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

no < na
[adverb] “not; like; no; na [word].”

na
[adverb] “not; like; no; na [word].”

no < u
[adverb] “ukāra; besides; now; indeed; u.”

nir < niḥ
[adverb] “niḥ; away; out; without.”

paraḥ < paras
[adverb] “beyond; away; farther.”

parastāt
[adverb] “above; subsequently.”

paro < paras
[adverb] “beyond; away; farther.”

pra
[adverb] “towards; ahead.”

praketaḥ < praketa
[noun], nominative, singular, masculine. “sight; knowledge; appearance.”

parame < parama
[noun], locative, singular, masculine. “extreme; best; excellent; highest; highest; devoted(p); maximal; distant; parama [word]; very; farthermost.”

prathamaṃ < prathamam < prathama
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “first; prathama [word]; third; young; chief(a); best; antecedent.”

pratīṣyā < pratīṣya < pratīṣ < √iṣ
[verb noun] “accept; search.”

prayatiḥ < prayati
[noun], nominative, singular, feminine. “offering.”

rajo < rajaḥ < rajas
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “powder; menorrhea; dust; Rajas; atmosphere; rajas; pollen; passion; rajas [word]; sindūra; rust; tin; impurity; dark; sky.”

rātryā < rātryāḥ < rātri
[noun], genitive, singular, feminine. “night; night; rātri [word]; turmeric; Rātri; day; night.”

retaḥ < retas
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “semen; sperm.”

raśmir < raśmiḥ < raśmi
[noun], nominative, singular, masculine. “beam; rein; sunbeam; shininess; cord.”

retodhā < retaḥ < retas
[noun], neuter. “semen; sperm.”

retodhā < dhāḥ < dhā
[noun], nominative, plural, masculine. “giving.”

sad < sat < as
[verb noun], nominative, singular. “be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

salilaṃ < salilam < salila
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “water; juice; body of water; Udaka; rain; flood.”

sam
[noun], nominative, singular, masculine. “sam; together; together; saṃ.”

so < saḥ < tad
[noun], nominative, singular, masculine. “this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

śarmann < śarman
[noun], locative, singular, neuter. “protection; protective covering; refuge; joy.”

sarvam < sarva
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “all(a); whole; complete; sarva [word]; every(a); each(a); all; entire; sāṃnipātika; manifold; complete; all the(a); different; overall.”

sato < sataḥ < as
[verb noun], genitive, singular. “be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

svadhā
[noun], nominative, singular, feminine. “free will; offering; libation; nature; svadhā [word]; comfort; power.”

svadhayā < svadhā
[noun], instrumental, singular, feminine. “free will; offering; libation; nature; svadhā [word]; comfort; power.”

svid
[adverb] “svid [word].”

tadānīṃ < tadānīm
[adverb] “at that time; then.”

tama < tamaḥ < tamas
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “dark; darkness; Tamas; tamas [word]; faint; tamas; gloom; ignorance.”

tamasā < tamas
[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter. “dark; darkness; Tamas; tamas [word]; faint; tamas; gloom; ignorance.”

tarhi
[adverb] “at that time; then.”

tad < tat < tad
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

tan < tat < tad
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

tapasas < tapasaḥ < tapas
[noun], genitive, singular, neuter. “penance; heat; Tapoloka; tapas [word]; ardor; austerity; summer; heat.”

tasmāddhānyan < tasmāt < tad
[noun], ablative, singular, neuter. “this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

tasmāddhānyan < ha
[adverb] “indeed; ha [word].”

tasmāddhānyan < anyat < anya
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “other; another(a); remaining; different; anya [word]; other than; more(a); fresh; any(a).”

tiraścīno < tiraścīnaḥ < tiraścīna
[noun], nominative, singular, masculine. “horizontal; cross(a).”

tucchyenābhv < tucchyena < tucchya
[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter. “emptiness.”

tucchyenābhv < ābhu
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “stingy; empty.”

upari
[adverb] “above; up; additionally; upari [word]; subsequently.”


[adverb] “or; optionally; either.”

veda < vid
[verb], singular, Perfect indicative. “know; diagnose; perceive; know; accord; notice; deem; mind; learn; specify; watch; recognize; detect; call.”

vitato < vitataḥ < vitan < √tan
[verb noun], nominative, singular. “expand; perform; scatter; prolong; increase.”

visṛṣṭiḥ < visṛṣṭi
[noun], nominative, singular, feminine. “universe; creation.”

visṛṣṭir < visṛṣṭiḥ < visṛṣṭi
[noun], nominative, singular, feminine. “universe; creation.”

visarjanenāthā < visarjanena < visarjana
[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter. “gift.”

visarjanenāthā < athā < atha
[adverb] “now; then; furthermore; now; then.”

vocat < vac
[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.). “say; describe; name; tell; address; enumerate; call; state; teach; explain; say; declare; speak; define; declare; order; address; recommend; answer; deem; recite; approve; proclaim; indicate; determine; mention; designate.”

vyomā < vyoman
[noun], nominative, singular, masculine. “abhra; sky; ākāśa; Svarga; Vyoman.”

yat < yad
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “who; which; yat [pronoun].”

yad < yat < yad
[noun], nominative, singular, neuter. “who; which; yat [pronoun].”

yadi
[adverb] “if; in case.”

yata < yatas
[adverb] “from which; whence; wherein.”

yo < yaḥ < yad
[noun], nominative, singular, masculine. “who. ; which; yat [pronoun].”

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